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What are faeces or stools made up of?
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What are faeces or stools made up of?

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Faeces and stools

What are faeces or stools made up of?

In the average healthy person the stool is made up of Bacteria, water, insoluble fibre, Cellulose, mucilage, mucus and dead cells from exfoliated lining of GI tract and some inorganic salts.

Banana or Sausage or torpedo shaped

100 to 200Gram

100 to 200mm (4 to 8 inches)

25 to 40mm (Half to one and a half inch)  largely determined by how healthy the tubular wall of the Colon is.

Moist, Firm, Soft, Solid, Bulky, Slippery, Fluffy, Smooth

The brown shades of faeces are due to bile acids called stercobilin and urobilin which are produced by bacterial degradation of bilirubin.
Bilirubin is formed as a breakdown product of haemoglobin (from red blood cells) in the liver and is secreted into the bile, which is secreted into the intestines.
If the intestinal contents travel at a normal speed, chemical changes in bilirubin produce stool that is light to dark brown. The stool may appear green if the intestinal contents pass through the bowel more rapidly.

Odourless (healthy stool) but depends largely on Diet and Type of resident Bacteria in the Colon.

Bacteria that can digest sulphur containing ingredients can produce the gases Skatole, indole, Mercaptans and hydrogen sulphide which contribute towards the foul smell of faeces.

The soft and bulky consistency of the stool is due to the presence of water and fibre which retains this water. This fibre is insoluble fibre and may be in the form of cellulose or mucilage which is derived exclusively from plant or vegetable articles in the diet.

The mucilage, soluble fibre and bacteria contribute to the stickiness, solidity and firmness of the stool making a well bound stool. A firm and solid stool will not break up while it is half way out of the rectum and anal canal. 

Bacteria in the stool are derived from the “friendly or commensal Bacteria” that populate the colon and can contribute up to half the weight of faeces. This huge population of Bacteria provides BULK and hydration to the stool and the property of stickiness and sliminess. This results in a bulky, slippery and firm stool that does not break up during transit.

Broad spectrum Antibiotics tend to destroy good as well as disease causing bacteria and can cause a reduction in the Bacterial population in the colon. The result is the formation of a compacted and hard stool containing undigested fibre that is not bulky enough to distend the muscular wall of the rectum to initiate the defecation reflex which results in the creation of the “urge to go”.

The population of “friendly bacteria” can be increased to achieve a firm stool by including Probiotics in the diet –Yoghurt.
Consumption of Prebiotics (soluble fibre, resistant starch) is found to be even more effective as this actually provides food for the bacteria already present in the colon. By feeding on the soluble fibre portion of one’s diet, the population of friendly bacteria increases in huge numbers, contributing to the property of solidity, firmness, stickiness, sliminess and moisture in the perfectly formed stool.

The stool is then made by the mixing and churning that takes place in the colon while water is being reabsorbed from the faecal waste.

The strength and tone of the muscles that make up the colon will determine how solid and firm the stool will be.

The perfect diet to make the perfectly formed stool should therefore include
1. Water—drink plenty of fluids to keep the body rehydrated at all times
2. Soluble and Insoluble fibre
it is very important to eat foods from the plant family. Fibre is ONLY available from vegetables. There is NO FIBRE at all in meat or dairy. Meat eaters should remember this fact.

The soluble fibre feeds the friendly Bacteria that reside in the colon and the insoluble fibre holds on to water to swell up and provide bulk to the stool. The result is a perfectly formed stool that is moist, soft and yet firm, solid and well bound, bulky due to the water retaining power of the insoluble fibre and bacterial cells, slippery and smooth for effortless exit.


How to heal and prevent Bowel disorders

Diet is not about what you should NOT eat, it’s about what you should include in the diet that matters.
As long as your diet includes the correct balance of plant foods containing soluble fibre, insoluble fibre and resistant starch your colon will produce the perfectly formed stool. The important next step is to evacuate this stool without straining so that the body does not suffer from the pressures created each time the bowel is emptied.

In order to heal and prevent bowel disorders you need to make lifestyle changes that last the rest of your life time.

1. Include more fluids and plant food containing soluble fibre, insoluble fibre and resistant starch in the diet so that the perfectly formed stool will be made in the colon and beneficial bacteria will flourish and eliminate disease causing bacteria and fungi.

2. Evacuate the perfectly formed stool by adopting the squat posture to eliminate the need to strain during bowel movements.

It is not possible or safe to squat on the modern raised toilet seat installed in all western homes and it is impossible to squat for any length of time if you have not done this from childhood onwards. This makes the use of any raised platforms impossible to adapt to.

The SquattLooStool is designed to allow you to adopt the squat posture while seated comfortably on your raised toilet seat.
The single best and easiest lifestyle change you will ever make, leading to a healthier body.